A level Chemistry exam revision resources



Chemistry StudyRoom


 
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Welcome to our Chemistry Study Room, here we have combined the knowledge of our subject specialist with a database of reviewed online resources that will help you prepare for your Chemistry Exams based on the current Chemistry syllabus across the main examboard specifications.


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Sample Study Room Articles  Rules for the Formulae of Compounds
 

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  Unit 1 Equations

 

  1 Introduction to Equations

Studyroom page 1 Equations - Introduction

  2 What is an Equation?

Studyroom page 1 What is an Equation ?

  3 Rules for the Formulae of Compounds

Studyroom page 1 Rules for the Formulae of Compounds

  4 State Symbols

Studyroom page 1 State Symbols

  5 Balancing Equations

Studyroom page 1 Balancing Equations

  6 Ionic Equations

Studyroom page 1 Ionic Equations
 
 

  Unit 2 Atomic Structure

 

  1 Introduction to Atomic Structure

Studyroom page 1 Atomic structure - Introduction

  2 Mass Number

Studyroom page 1 Mass number

  3 Relative Atomic Mass

Studyroom page 1 Relative atomic mass

  4 Relative Atomic Masses of elements

Studyroom page 1 Relative atomic masses of elements

  5 The Mass Spectrometer

Studyroom page 1 The mass spectrometer.

  6 Electronic structure of atoms

Studyroom page 1 Electronic structure of atoms

  7 Sucessive ionisation energies

Studyroom page 1 Successive ionisation energies

  8 First ionisation energies

Studyroom page 1 First ionisation energies
Studyroom page 2 Principal Quantum Levels

  9 Electrons in boxes

Studyroom page 1 Electrons in boxes

  10 Electronic structure of ions

Studyroom page 1 The electronic structure of ions
 
 

  Unit 3 Basic Calculations

 

  1 Introduction to Basic Calculations

Studyroom page 1 Basic Calculations - Introduction

  2 The Mole

Studyroom page 1 The Mole

  3 Calculations involving Solutions

Studyroom page 1 Calculations involving Solutions

  4 Titrations

Studyroom page 1 Titrations

  5 Calculations involving Gases

Studyroom page 1 Calculations involving Gases - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 The Ideal Gas Equation pV = nRT

  6 Empirical Formulae

Studyroom page 1 Empirical Formulae
 
 

  Unit 4 Bonding and Structure

 

  1 Introduction to Bonding

Studyroom page 1 Bonding - Introduction

  2 Covalent Bonds

Studyroom page 1 Covalent Bonds, Bonding with s orbitals
Studyroom page 2 Electron Density

  3 Electronegativity

Studyroom page 1 Electronegativity

  4 Ionic Bonding

Studyroom page 1 Ionic Bonding

  5 Summary

Studyroom page 1 Bonding - Summary

  6 The Properties of Compounds

Studyroom page 1 Covalent Materials
Studyroom page 2 Giant Molecules
Studyroom page 3 Ionic Compounds

  7 Intermolecular Forces

Studyroom page 1 Intermolecular Forces - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 van der Waals Forces
Studyroom page 3 Permanent Dipole Attraction
Studyroom page 4 Hydrogen Bonding

  8 Shapes of Molecules

Studyroom page 1 Shapes of Molecules
 
 

  Unit 5 Thermodynamics

 

  1 Introduction to Thermodynamics

Studyroom page 1 Thermodynamics - Introduction

  2 Enthalpy Changes

Studyroom page 1 Enthalpy Changes

  3 Enthalpies of Formation

Studyroom page 1 Enthalpies of Formation

  4 Enthalpies of Combustion

Studyroom page 1 Enthalpies of Combustion

  5 Using Enthalpy Changes

Studyroom page 1 Using Enthalpy Changes

  6 Hess's Law

Studyroom page 1 Hess's Law

  7 Doing calculations

Studyroom page 1 Doing calculations

  8 Bond Enthalpies

Studyroom page 1 Bond Enthalpies

  9 Born-Haber Cycles

Studyroom page 1 Born-Haber Cycles
Studyroom page 2 Doing Questions - What you need to do
Studyroom page 3 Things to understand about Ionic Compounds

  10 Enthalpy of Solution

Studyroom page 1 Enthalpy of Solution

  11 Enthalpy of Hydration

Studyroom page 1 Enthalpy of Hydration

  12 The Concept of Free Energy

Studyroom page 1 The Concept of Free Energy

  13 Entropy

Studyroom page 1 Entropy
Studyroom page 2 The Free Energy of an Explosive

  14 The Four Types of Reaction

Studyroom page 1 The Four Types of Reaction
Studyroom page 2 Reactions which are always Feasible
Studyroom page 3 Reactions which are never Feasible
Studyroom page 4 Reactions that are sometimes Feasible have ÄG = 0 at some Temperature

  15 ÄG and Equlibria

Studyroom page 1 ÄG and Equlibria

  16 ÄG and Rates of Reaction

Studyroom page 1 ÄG and Rates of Reaction
 
 

  Unit 6 Kinetics

 

  1 Introduction to Kinetics

Studyroom page 1 Kinetics - Introduction

  2 The Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Studyroom page 1 Time and Rate
Studyroom page 2 When do Chemical Reactions Happen ?
Studyroom page 3 Following the Rate of Chemical Reactions

  3 Factors affecting the rate of chemical reaction

Studyroom page 1 Factors affecting the Rate of Chemical Reactions
Studyroom page 2 Temperature
Studyroom page 3 Concentration
Studyroom page 4 Surface Area
Studyroom page 5 Catalysis

  4 The Rate Constant

Studyroom page 1 The Rate Constant

  5 Determining Orders and Rate Constants

Studyroom page 1 Determining Orders and Rate Constants
Studyroom page 2 The Overall Order of Reaction

  6 Units of the Rate Constant

Studyroom page 1 Units of the Rate Constant
 
 

  Unit 7 Equilibria

 

  1 Introduction to Equilibria

Studyroom page 1 Equilibria - Introduction

  2 Reversible Reactions

Studyroom page 1 Reversible Reactions

  3 Dynamic Equilibrium

Studyroom page 1 Dynamic Equilibrium

  4 The Position of an Equilibrium

Studyroom page 1 The Position of an Equilibrium

  5 Equilibrium Constant Kc

Studyroom page 1 Equilibrium Constant Kc

  6 Determination of an Equilibrium Constant, Kc

Studyroom page 1 Determination of an Equilibrium Constant, Kc

  8 The Units of Kc

Studyroom page 1 The Units of Kc

  9 Other Equilibria

Studyroom page 1 Other Equilibria

  10 The Equilibrium Constant Kp

Studyroom page 1 The Equilibrium Constant Kp
Studyroom page 2 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures
Studyroom page 3 Mole Fractions
Studyroom page 4 The Equilibrium Constant Kp

  11 Factors which Affect Equilibria

Studyroom page 1 Factors which Affect Equilibria - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 Le Chateliers Principle
Studyroom page 3 Constraints that Favour the Rate of the Forward Reaction - Concentration
Studyroom page 4 Constraints that Favour the Rate of the Forward Reaction - Temperature
Studyroom page 5 Constraints that Favour the Rate of the Forward Reaction - Pressure
Studyroom page 6 Constraints that Favour the Rate of the Forward Reaction - Catalysis
Studyroom page 7 What do I Have to Know?

  12 The Haber Process

Studyroom page 1 The Haber Process
 
 

  Unit 8 Redox Reactions

 

  1 Introduction to Redox Reactions

Studyroom page 1 Redox Reactions - Introduction

  2 Oxidising Agents and Reducing Agents

Studyroom page 1 Oxidising agents and reducing agents

  3 Oxidation Numbers

Studyroom page 1 Oxidation Numbers

  4 Using Oxidation Numbers to Balance Equations

Studyroom page 1 Using Oxidation Numbers to Balance Equations

  5 The Redox Ladder

Studyroom page 1 The Redox Ladder

  6 Using Standard Electrode Potentials, Eè

Studyroom page 1 Using Standard Electrode Potentials, Eè

  7 The Standard Hydrogen Electrode

Studyroom page 1 The Standard Hydrogen Electrode

  8 Cell Conventions

Studyroom page 1 Cell Conventions
 
 

  Unit 9 Periodicity

 

  1 Introduction to Periodicity

Studyroom page 1 Periodicity - Introduction

  2 Melting Points

Studyroom page 1 Melting points

  3 First Ionisation Energy

Studyroom page 1 First ionisation energy

  4 Atomic and Ionic Radii

Studyroom page 1 Atomic and ionic radii

  5 Electronegativity

Studyroom page 1 Electronegativity

  6 Electrical Conductivity

Studyroom page 1 Electrical Conductivity

  7 The Oxides and Chlorides of the Third Period

Studyroom page 1 The Oxides and Chlorides of the Third Period
 
 

  Unit 10 Extraction of Metals

 

  1 Introduction to Extraction of Metals

Studyroom page 1 The Extraction of metals - Introduction

  2 Aluminium

Studyroom page 1 Aluminium - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 The Reactions
Studyroom page 3 The uses of aluminium

  3 Iron

Studyroom page 1 Iron - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 The Reactions
Studyroom page 3 The manufacture of steel

  4 Titanium

Studyroom page 1 Titanium - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 The Reactions
Studyroom page 3 Uses - Titanium

  5 Chromium

Studyroom page 1 Chromium - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 The Reactions
Studyroom page 3 Uses - Chromium

  6 Conclusion

Studyroom page 1 The Extraction of metals - Conclusion
 
 

  Unit 11 Inorganic Group Chemistry

 

  1 Introduction to Inorganic Group Chemistry

Studyroom page 1 Inorganic Group Chemistry - Introduction

  2 Group I - Alkali Metals

Studyroom page 1 Group I - The Alkali Metals

  3 Group II - The Alkaline Earth Metals

Studyroom page 1 Group II - The Alkaline Earth Metals

  4 Group III: Aluminium

Studyroom page 1 Group III - Aluminium

  5 Group VII: The Halogens

Studyroom page 1 Group VII - The Halogens
 
 

  Unit 12 Transition metals

 

  1 Introduction to Transition metals

Studyroom page 1 Transition metals - Introduction

  2 Electronic Structure of the d-block Metals

Studyroom page 1 Electronic structure of the d-block metals

  3 Definition of Transition Metals

Studyroom page 1 Definition of transition metals

  4 Co-ordination Numbers

Studyroom page 1 Co-ordination numbers

  5 Ligand Exchange

Studyroom page 1 Ligand Exchange
Studyroom page 2 Reactions involving chloride ions
Studyroom page 3 Salt hydrolysis

  6 Eè Considerations

Studyroom page 1 E considerations

  7 Variable Oxidation State

Studyroom page 1 Variable Oxidation State

  8 Catalytic Behaviour

Studyroom page 1 Catalytic Behaviour
 
 

  Unit 13 Functional groups and isomerism in organic chemistry

 

  1 Introduction to Functional groups and isomerism in organic chemistry

Studyroom page 1 Functional groups and isomerism - Introduction

  2 Homologous Series

Studyroom page 1 Homologous Series - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 Alkanes
Studyroom page 3 Alkenes
Studyroom page 4 Haloalkanes
Studyroom page 5 Alcohols
Studyroom page 6 Carbonyls
Studyroom page 7 Amines
Studyroom page 8 Nitriles
Studyroom page 9 Carboxylic Acids
Studyroom page 10 The Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

  3 Isomerism

Studyroom page 1 Isomerism - Introduction
Studyroom page 2 Structural Isomerism
Studyroom page 3 Stereoisomerism
 
 

  Unit 14 Alkanes, Alkenes and Benzene

 

  1 Alkanes

Studyroom page 1 Alkanes
Studyroom page 2 Understanding cracking
Studyroom page 3 Propagation

  2 Alkenes

Studyroom page 1 Alkenes

  3 Electrophilic addition reaction

Studyroom page 1 Electrophilic addition reaction

  4 Benzene - the structure

Studyroom page 1 Benzene - the structure

  5 Benzene - the reactions

Studyroom page 1 Benzene - the reactions
Studyroom page 2 Electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene
Studyroom page 3 Friedel crafts alkylation
Studyroom page 4 Friedel crafts acylation
 
 

  Unit 15 Haloalkanes, Alcohols and Carbonyls

 

  1 Haloalkanes

Studyroom page 1 Halokanes
Studyroom page 2 Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Studyroom page 3 Other nucleophiles
Studyroom page 4 Elimination reactions

  2 The alcohols

Studyroom page 1 Alcohols
Studyroom page 2 Oxidation of alcohols
Studyroom page 3 Oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes
Studyroom page 4 Oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones

  3 Distinguishing between Aldehydes and Ketones

Studyroom page 1 Distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones
Studyroom page 2 Aldehydes as reducing agents

  4 Reducing aldehydes and ketones

Studyroom page 1 Reducing aldehydes and ketones
 
 

  Unit 16 The amines

 

  1 Introduction and Classification

Studyroom page 1 Introduction and Classification

  2 The Basic Reactions of Amines

Studyroom page 1 The Basic Reactions of Amines

  3 Making Amines

Studyroom page 1 Making Amines
 
 

  Unit 17 Carboxylic acids and their derivatives

 

  1 Carboxylic Acids

Studyroom page 1 Carboxylic Acids

  2 The Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids

Studyroom page 1 The Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids

  3 Acylation Reactions

Studyroom page 1 Acylation reactions
Studyroom page 2 Mechanism of acylation
Studyroom page 3 Acid anhydrides
 
 



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